EVIDENCE

01.主要な短鎖脂肪酸の有用性
.腸内細菌叢由来短鎖脂肪酸の主な働き

酪酸:

・小腸の繊毛運動、大腸のぜん動運動を活性化

・腸管粘膜 (粘液層) の傷を修復、粘膜物質(ムチン)の分泌を促し大腸を保護

・大腸細胞の異常な増殖を抑え、大腸癌の発症を抑制

・腸管ホルモンであるGLP-1の分泌を促し、インスリン分泌を正常化 (インクレチン効果) して糖尿病を改善

・腸管ホルモンであるGLP-1やPYYを分泌させ、脳に作用して過食を抑制

・過剰な免疫反応を抑えるTレグ細胞 (制御型T細胞) という免疫細胞を増やす効果

 

プロピオン酸:

・ Tレグ細胞(制御型T細胞)に作用し,腸管粘膜でのTレグ細胞の維持に寄与することで,大腸炎抑制に効果

 

酢酸:

・腸内pHバランスを酸性にし、有害菌を減少

・大腸腸管上皮細胞のバリア機能を高め、病原菌の腸管感染症を予防 

・食欲抑制効果

 

出典: “Physiological and clinical aspects of short-chain fatty acids” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (1995). 87., “短鎖脂肪酸の生理活性” 日本油化学会誌46 (1997) 10, 1205-1212., “ストレスと腸内フローラ” 腸内細菌学雑誌19 (2005) 1, 25-29., “食物繊維の栄養・生理機能に関する研究“日本栄養・食料学会誌61(1)3-9(2008), “プレバイオティクスから大腸で産生される短鎖脂肪酸の生理効果” 腸内細菌学雑誌16(2002) 1:35-42, “腸内細菌叢を介した食事性栄養認識受容体による宿主エネルギー恒常性維持機構” YAKUGAKU ZASSHI. 134 (2014)  10:1037-1042, “上部消化管機能 と食物繊維 “日本食物繊維学会誌10 (2006) 2:53-63, "Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate."Nature 469 (2011) :543–547, “A potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases”. World J. Gastroenterol 17 (12): 1519-1528., “The role of butyrate on colonic function”. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 27 (2): 104-119., “Gut microbiota-derived propionate reduces cancer cell proliferation in the liver”. Br. J. Cancer 107: 1337-1344., “Beneficial Metabolic Effects of a Probiotic via Butyrate-induced GLP-1 Hormone Secretion”. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (35): 25088-25097., "メタボリックシンドロームと腸内細菌叢"腸内細菌学雑誌24(2010) 3:193-201, “Butyrate and Propionate Protect against Diet-Induced Obesity and Regulate Gut Hormones via Free Fatty Acid Receptor 3-Independent Mechanisms” PLoS One 7 (4): e35240., “The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism”. Nat. Commun. 5: 3611., “Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells”. Nature 504: 446-450., “腸内細菌叢の消化管疾患への関与” .モダンメディア 60 (11): 325-331.

 

02.短鎖脂肪酸による上皮バリア・免疫修飾作用

短鎖脂肪酸による上皮バリア・免疫修飾作用

出典:”腸内細菌により免疫制御” モダンメディア 63 (2) 16-21 (2017), “腸内細菌叢と免疫の関わり”  Jpn. J. Chin. Immunol., 40 (6) 408-415 (2017)

03.ルミナコイドの腸内細菌を介した代謝経路

ルミナコイドの腸内細菌を介した代謝経路

出典:"ルミナコイド素材のエネルギー評価の考え方と1,5- アンヒドログルシトールのエネルギー評価結果"ルミナコイド研究 22(1);29-33(2018)

 
 
 
​04.ルミナコイドの疾患予防とエビデンス
ルミナコイドの疾患予防とエビデンス

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“デンプンの摂取と健康―難消化性デンプンの生理機能” J.Jpn.Assoc.DietaryFiberRes.Vol.3No.2(1999)

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“Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia” Am J Clin Nutr . 1999 Oct;70(4):466-473.

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“Cereal fiber improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women” Diabetes Care . 2006 Apr;29(4):775-80.

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“Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis” Am J Clin Nutr.1999 Jan;69(1):30-42.  

“Functional foods for coronary heart disease risk reduction: a meta-analysis using a multivariate approach” Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:32–40.

“Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials” Am J Clin Nutr . 2000 Feb;71(2):472-479.

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“Increased Fecal Bile Acid Excretion and Changes in the Circulating Bile Acid Pool Are Involved in the Hypocholesterolemic and Gallstone-Preventive Actions of Psyllium in Hamsters” J. Nutr., 129, 896-902 (1999) 

“Raising intestinal contents viscosity leads to greater excretion of neutral steroids but not bile acids in hamsters and rats” Nutr. Res., 23, 91-102 ( 2003) 

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“Dietary Fibers and Glycemic Load, Obesity, and Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Women With Type 2 Diabetes “ Diabetes Care 2006;29(7):1501–1505

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“Indigestible Disaccharides Open Tight Junctions and Enhance Net Calcium, Magnesium, and Zinc Absorption in Isolated Rat Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium” Digestive Diseases and Sciences” Dig. Dis. Sci., 49, 122–132  ( 2004)